Second step, we make a comparison between required alkalinity and alkalinity already in Figure 2: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 75 NTU. When dissolved in water, alum dissociates and the multivalent aluminum ions (Al3+) form various species that have an average positive charge. You can estimate P concentrations for process control with a test kit for reactive phosphorus. The data was omitted from the figure because of those errors. If we maintain both flow rate and flocculator length (hence residence time) constant, we can keep mixing constant. 3. These colorimetric tests allow for fast results and enable timely process control adjustments. The optimum aluminum sulfate dosage was 2 g/L. Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. Metric Conversions. Technical Data Sheet In water treatment processes, the primary electrolyte introduced into solution as the primary coagulant is aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), also known as Alum. Index Terms—Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 18H 2 O), artificial neural networks, coagulation, flocculation, optimal dosage of coagulant. This precipitation simultaneously increases the consumption of aluminum, but these hydroxides also contribute to the flocculation and decanting of the phosphor particles. Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. And for: How do you know when over/under dosing for P removal? A TDEE-based water calculator that will calculate the hydration required based on your body energy needs, including activity status. Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 5 MGD with an alum feed rate of 250 lb/day. We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. Anthricite coal filters, average life span? A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. Part of the aluminum cations Al3 + precipitate in parallel with hydroxide ions OH- to form precipitates Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH)3. Fluoride result is over half of the MAC(1.5), does sampling increase too every 3 months until results reduce to < half? This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. The lowest turbidity reading reached in each of the four turbidity experiments were in the 10 NTU range. You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. You will need to apply a strong molar ratio to achieve the required results. A raw water supply is treated with an alum dosage of 25 mg/L. This translates to a flow rate of roughly 9.69 mL/sec through the 0.42m diameter pipes used in this experimental setup. {"serverDuration": 67, "requestCorrelationId": "20e4cabe323c20ec"}, Overall Tube Floc Research and Past Report. I surmise that you would test for phosphorus, pH, temp., D.O., TSS in all zones; could aluminum residual test be a useful indicator of optimal process? Besides, possible cost of treatment and toxicity effect of the chemical coagulant are indicated by the reduction dose of alum. It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. Anoxic zones are used along with anaerobic zones as part of biological phosphorus removal. Note: a) .the cost of Poly Aluminium Chloride is twice/thrice of Alum ( roughly the cost of PAC-$0.4/ Kg) Thanks for sharing... @wesley A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. Single-Step Flocculation for reclaiming Parts Washer wastewater? How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. Knowing your influent and effluent flow rates, as well as dissolved oxygen, nitrate concentrations in the biological tanks and the amount of phosphorous you are dealing with (influent & sidestreams). How much pressure generally filled in a chlorine cylinder. Use the Radiation Dose Calculator to estimate your yearly dose from sources of ionizing radiation. Final turbidity is a measure of whether of how much suspended particles were not affected by the alum---a high final turbidity would indicate that an inadequate amount of alum was introduced compared to the amount of contaminants in solution. Is there a general amount of P removed by biological/chemical treatment? Ratio-Proportion. Online metal weight calculator which helps to calculate the weight of Aluminum Plate metal. There is an unexpected anomaly in the relationship between the 0 mg/L curve and the 5 mg/L curve. Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 7 MGD with an alum feed rate of 340 lb/day. 6. Iron requirement is greater than the aluminum requirement in terms of chemical dosage to remove same amount of phosphorus. A second observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the marginal effectiveness (measured in both final turbidity and initial rate of settle) of increasing alum dose decreases significantly after about 25-30 mg/L of alum. alum used (wet or dry), dosage rate, area treated, equipment rental or purchase, and labor. Colorimetric measures are available and can be done quickly (providing that blank samples are measured to subtract the initial color of the sample). This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. What's the best material for pipes used in chlorination? Contrary to expectations, it appears that the quality of the final water was worse off after adding 5 mg/L of alum as opposed to having no alum present. The experiments do not show conclusive evidence of where the optimal alum dose is for the different levels of turbidity. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. Note that the transition between laminar flow to turbulent flow in long smooth pipes occurs at a Reynolds number of roughly Re = 2300. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… Future experiments may need to be performed to determine whether the effects of alum can vary with different mixing intensities or other variables. More experiments should be run to obtain better data resolution at the alum doses between 25-55 mg/L. The flocculator setup was used in this experiment. If it is added in the bioreactor, ferrous salt (chloride or sulphate) will work and will be cheaper. The alum stock had not been used up at the start of our experiments, but we noticed that contaminants in the form of dust and lint had fallen and aggregated at the bottom of the alum stock tank. Figures 1-4 display the time series plots of turbidity during the settle state in which flocculated particles are allowed to settle in a quiescent environment inside the modified glass cylinder of the effluent turbidimeter. 12H 2 O are considered to be an alum. Knowledge of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant dosage calculations. Sometimes alum is seen in its crystalline form, although it is most often sold as a powder. One of the important contributors to the formation of flocs is the chemical coagulant aluminum sulfate (Alum). A high level of reduction requires a high Al: P molar ratio. alinea, I appreciate your answers to my queries. treatment of drinking water at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L (dry basis). 4 1 60 30 1 1 2 × × = The answer has to have tabs as units since that is the units for the dose on hand. Alum and ferric chloride are the most commonly used coagulants in MBR process because they can reduce phosphorus to the lowest concentration. This trend occurred across all turbidities (this observation is less obvious in the 100 NTU run, but the data does not necessarily oppose this observation) and is a phenomena that may be of significance in understanding alum effectiveness. 2. Medical Dosage Calculations For Dummies Cheat Sheet By Richard Snyder, Barry Schoenborn No matter what initials you have after your name (RN, CNA, PA, and so on), you can bet you’ll see math on a daily basis if you’re going into (or are already in) a career in the medical field. Theoretically, one mole of Al is required to react with one mole of P to precipitate in the form of AlPO4. Since we do not have the equipment needed to observe and measure the sizes of flocs formed after each experiment, we can only observe the rate at which flocs settle under quiescent conditions and the final settled turbidity. FEEDING DEVICES; A well engineered feeding device is an integral part of an effective water treatment program. Put your risk from radiation exposure in perspective. How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? While the need to fully understand the mechanism by which alum coagulates particles was not immediately pressing, it was important for our research to determine the most effective alum dose for various levels of turbidity in order to temporarily remove alum dosing as a variable in our later experiments. Calculate your radiation dose > > Radiation Health Effects. The fact that the curves are so similar in all four figures suggests that the optimal alum doses changes only slightly for this range of turbidity values. The volume of … For the 50 NTU experiments (Figure 1) a general trend can be seen that indicates final turbidity decreases as alum dose increase. Deficient conditions in your treatment process will inevitably have a repercussion on not only your P removal but on all your parameters. The affective diameter was 42 cm and the tube wrapped around the cylinder approximately 15.5 times, giving a total length of approximately 20.45 meters. Nitrification - Alkalinity Calculator . 6. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. Learn more >> Protective Action Guide (PAG) Q&A, Map Templates. Yield of the calculations : Polymer consumption GPD (neat) 428.49786 : Polymer consumption GPH (neat) 17.85408 : Polymer consumption GPM (neat) 0.29757 : Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) 38.08870 : PPM of polymer needed to make the process work : 3500 : 24: Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM : 0.29757 Dosage calculation formulas. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. Therefore,the optimal alum dose should be indicated by the curve with the quickest settling rate and final turbidity. Coagulation & Flocculation Calculations 17 Sedimentation Calculations 19 Chemical Feeder Calculations 21 Chemical Feeder Calibrations 22 Chemical Usage 23 Filtration Rate Calculations 24 Backwash Calculations 26 Chlorination Calculations 27 Laboratory Calculations 28 Horsepower & Pump Efficiency 31 Wire to Water Calculations 34 7. Given that the flocculator length is fixed, we must select and hold constant a flow rate that is will cause adequate amount of mixing but that will not break up flocs. After determining the optimal alum dose for different influent turbidities, we proceed to run experiments with other variables, such as velocity gradient (G) and Gtheta, an indicator of the cumulative extent of mixing experienced after one pass through a reactor. Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. For your question: Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? Figure 1: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 50 NTU. After canceling out units the mathematical operations are performed to obtain the answer. In the current laboratory flocculator experimental setup, there are several parameters that control the flocculator process. Is UV light or ozonation as effective as chlorination? 8. Moreover, the levels of contaminants in the waters in Honduras will have very different dissolved matter in it that will react to alum much differently than in our experiments. Furthermore, while fine tuning the Process Controller methods, we noticed that that the current concentration of 5000 mg/L, a dose of 5 mg/L could not be produced by the peristaltic pump. Normally, a Mathcad program developed by the previous teams would have been utilized to gather, parse, and extract relevant data recorded through out the experimental runs; however, our team had not been introduced to the software at the time of this report's submission and had to parse and analyze the data with Microsoft Excel. The effectiveness of alum is measured by the size of flocs after flocculation. The calculation for the length of the tube was done by measuring the outer diameter of the cylinder around which the tube was wrapped (plus adjustments for the thickness of the tube itself) and multiplying that by ¿ to give the circumference and then multiplying the circumference by the number of times the tube wrapped completely around the cylinder. The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. USALCO liquid Aluminum Sulfate is ready to use and mixes well in water. Wastewater Sludge (biosolids) Production Estimating Calculator . *  A chemical treatment will transform soluble phosphorus into particulate phosphorus, allowing the reduction of total phosphorus following a "Solid-liquid" separation. In practice, the aluminum to phosphorus molar ratio to be applied is greater than the stoichiometric ratio. Flocculation is the subsequent process whereby particles collide and form large aggregates, or flocs. It all depends on the wastewater characteristics, the mixing & dispersion conditions, the phosphorus concentration in your raw water and the expected concentration at the release point & so on…. Figure 4: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 150 NTU. Chemical Dose Determination The most important component of a control strategy for chemical phosphorous removal is the calculation of coagulant dosage. Do deficient conditions in: anoxic/aeration/MBR tank zones have an impact on P removal? Hope this helps! Alum Calculator You can only enter data in the yellow fields below: Alum Strength % w/v (g/100mL) * mg/L mg/mL Pump Setting L/Hr * L/Hr mg/Hr Alum Dosed Plant Flow Rate L/second * Volume Dosed Water L/Hr Dose of Alum per Litre of Dosed Water- mg Alum/ L Dosed Water Target Alum Dose … Our main objective in conducting research with the lab flocculator is to be able to isolate each of the parameters in order to understand their specific roles in the flocculation process and to optimize overall flocculator efficiency. Iron in the form of ferric salt (chloride or sulphate) is the preferred coagulant when added in the absence of oxygen. This optimal alum dose should, therefore, change with different influent turbidities. 0 Results indicated that turbidity removal efficiency declined to some extent by increasing initial turbidity level from 100 to 200, 500, and 1000 NTU. Too high a dose can result in pH problems, wasted chemical, increased chemical costs... 1. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. Function of a htdraulic seal in a UASB reactor, Monitoring of phosphorus removal in the aeration tank, Program Director Water Wastewater Group San Francisco Bay Area - Parsons Corporation - San Francisco, CA, Water Distribution Operator II or III - Town of Mountain Village - Mountain Village, CO, General Manager-Saint Paul Regional Water Services - Saint Paul Regional Water Services - Saint Paul, MN, General Manager - Springs Hill Water Supply Corporation - Seguin, TX, Planner Scheduler (Facility Management) - The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California - Los Angeles, CA. More experiments should be done to refine the data resolution of the 25-55 mg/L alum dose range for each of the 4 turbidities. Treatment costs range from $280/acre to $700/acre ($450=approximate average) depending on the dosage requirements and costs to mobilize equipment. Phosphates that respond to colorimetric tests without digestion of the sample are termed "reactive phosphorus", which is largely measured as orthophosphate. Since the experiments were run under identical conditions, the mechanisms creating the flocs are identical from run to run; therefore, the composition of the flocs (their shape and density) should be relatively uniform. The ANN created is able to calculate the dosage based on the value of initial turbidity of the fluid to be treated with a MSE 0 mg/L, achieving removal percentages greater than 93% for most cases. It is very important that you input an accurate result; Dosage is the prescribed amount of drug in mg per kg of body weight. Estimate how much water should you drink per day with this daily water intake calculator. TNTC Calculation . Aluminum Plate Weight Calculation Material Alloy Steel Aluminum Beryllium Brass Bronze Cast Iron Columbium Copper Copper Alloys Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Plastic Silver Stainless Steel Tantalum Titanium Tungsten Zinc Zirconium I'm new to working with this type of treatment and challenged by: low TP limit of 0.1 mg/L, high infiltration rates, undersized equalization tank, raw data only available by one grab sample per month, O & M limited to once or twice a week, no access to remote control and monitoring and so on. What intrusion detectors do you use? 9. The largest alum dose used in these experiments was 45 mg/L, and while the curves show that the marginal benefit gained by adding more alum in the 40-45 mg/L range is minimal, extending the alum dose range will give more definitive evidence that we have indeed reached a critical value in alum dose. Alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements. The experiments proved that the addition of alum into turbid waters prior to flocculation improves particle aggregation, leading to higher settling velocities and cleaner effluent water. It is expected that a point will be reached at which additional alum addition will not significantly reduce turbidity, and it is in the proximity of this alum dose that we suspect the optimal alum dose will be. The subsequent experiments at 100 NTU are correct as well as the runs for 50, 75, 150 NTU. This fact allows us to directly relate the settling rate of the flocs to the size of the flocs, while neglecting factors such as electrostatic interactions and porosity (which would affect drag coefficients and densities.) How will shock loads of infiltration water affect P removal? Check our job offerings and find your next career move, Get fresh news from the industry with FluksAqua blog, FluksAqua, your leading online resource for water and wastewater services. Figure 3: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 100 NTU. Dosage rates for aluminum salts or for iron salts are based on the molar ratio of available metal ion to phosphorous. At the beginning working with a MBR can represent a significant challenge: increase in variables, different performance indicators to monitor and control, & unfamiliar equipment… it takes time to adapt. Maximizing Alum Application Effectiveness. Hi Wesley, Another general observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the settling rate of flocs increases dramatically between the alum dose of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L. The solution to this problem was to dilute the alum to a lower concentration (1500 mg/L in our case) so that a higher alum flow rate would be required to obtain a particular influent concentration than when it was at 5000 mg/L. Liquid alum has been used when large alum doses were needed. *  Alternating between anaerobic and aerobic zones (Biological phosphate removal) can remove more than 20% of the total phosphorus without the use of chemical. Thetreatment reduced the total solids of the wastewater by 89.6%, and produced a supernatant with a … It will delude the concentration of P in the wastewater. While finding this relationship is integral to our later experiments, the empirical values would not necessarily apply to vertical flocculators used in water treatment plants designed for Honduras. I. alum to be added and give proper precipitation is calculated using the this equation: Total alkalinity required (mg/L) = Alkalinity reacting with alum (mg/L) + alkalinity presence in the water (mg/L) {?1 mg/L alum reacts with 0.45 mg/L alkalinity}. 7. 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